Important Definitions: Music, The Brain, and Why It Matters

Listed in order of appearance in Music, The Brain, and Why It Matters 

Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

Retention is when a person can recall or retain experiences based on the mental process of recognition or retention of information.

Language Acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

Motor skills are simply an action that involves using muscles.

Music integration using music and/or engaging in music in the primary classroom

Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music

Vocal affect verbal cues of affect, emotion in our vocal expression

Neural Systems The most general functional definition divides neural systems into sensory systems like vision or hearing that acquire and process information from the environment, and motor systems that allow the organism to respond to such information by generating movements.

Temporal Lobe each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech.

Parietal Lobe either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the reception and correlation of sensory information.

Cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.

Occipital Lobe is responsible for processing visual information from the eyes

Auditory Areas A.K.A. primary auditory cortex part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information

Long-term Memory storage of information over a long period of time

Pitch the quality of a sound governed by the rate of vibrations producing it; the degree of highness or lowness of a tone.

Rhythm a strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound

Tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece or subsection thereof, how fast or slow. Tempo is related to meter and is usually measured by beats per minute

Recognition Skills entails a reader’s ability to recognize words individually—from a list, for example—without the benefit of surrounding words for contextual help

Pattern Recognition focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data

Stimuli a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue

Cross-activation theory hypothesizes that synaesthesia is caused by the hyperconnectivity between the color and number areas of the brain at different stages in processing

Synaesthesia the production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another sense or part of the body.

Instrumental musical training teaching and learning instruments

Neural development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

Brainwave communication between neurons within our brains, produced by synchronised electrical pulses from masses of neurons communicating with each other.

Neural synchrony (oscillation) rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system.

Sequential skill development refers to a developmental milestone is a skill  that a child acquires within a specific time frame.

Music instruction also known as music lessons; these are a type of formal instruction in playing a musical instrument or singing.

Spatial reasoning a category of reasoning skills that refers to the capacity to think about objects in three dimensions and to draw conclusions about those objects from limited information.

Proportional mathematics two variables are proportional if a change in one is always accompanied by a change in the other

Explicit memory memories of facts and events

Implicit memory unconscious memory of skills

Recall bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one’s mind, especially so as to recount it to others

Beat in music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse

Melody also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm

Semantic content meaning of words and sentences

Whole-language  describes a literacy philosophy which emphasizes that children should focus on meaning and strategy instruction.

Verbal memory used to refer to memory for words and verbal items (as opposed to spatial memory)

Alpha brainwaves are one type of brain waves detected either by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) and typically originate from the occipital lobe during wakeful relaxation with closed eyes. Alpha waves are reduced with open eyes, drowsiness and sleep.

Active Concerts emotional and inspirational effect, harmonious

Passive Concerts Slow movements, re enforces relaxed, focused state

5 skills involved with language acquisitionphonological awareness refers to the specific ability to focus on and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words, speech-in-noise perception refers to extracting a speakerʼs voice from a background of competing voices, rhythm perception refers to the intake of specific rhythmic stimuli, auditory working memory is the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, ability to learn sound patterns sequences of sounds that can be distinguished into a set

Longitudinal study is an observational research method in which data is gathered for the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time

Affective cues used in speech portrayal of emotive words

Acoustic cues differential speech sounds

Emotive voices speaking in an emotional tone

Timbre in music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production

Musical passages  is a musical idea that may or may not be complete or independent. For example, fill, riff, and all sections.

Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the Nervous System

Motor control is the process by which humans and animals use their cognition to activate and coordinate the muscles and limbs involved in the performance of a motor skill

Right and left hemispheres of brain the left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts.

Preliminary brain scans are tests done before someone participates in a study to establish a baseline

Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals

Emotional expressions in psychology are observable verbal and nonverbal behaviors that communicate an internal emotional or affective state. Examples of emotional expression are facial movements such as smiling or scowling, or behaviors like crying or laughing

Auditory input sounds coming in and being processed by auditory systems in brain

Genetic stimuli the interaction between our genes and the expression of genes

Environmental stimuli refers to stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings.

Emotional Intelligence is the capability of individuals to recognize their own, and other people’s emotions, to discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and to manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one’s goal(s)

Emotional rhythms refer to how our bodies are influenced by rhythmic biological cycles that affect his or her ability in various domains, such as mental, physical and emotional activity.

Reasoning the action of thinking about something in a logical, sensible way.

Creativity the use of the imagination or original ideas, especially in the production of an artistic work

Thinking the process of using one’s mind to consider or reason about something.

Decision making the action or process of making decisions, especially important ones.

Problem solving the process of finding solutions to difficult or complex issues.

Auditory refinements refers to the refining or increase in skill of our auditory processing capabilities

Acoustic distinctions refer to the ability to interpret differences of sound

Perceptual abilities refers to the faculty of interpreting or processing sensory information, such as that gathered from sight. It is often discussed in relation to cognitive (thought) and motor (physical) abilities.

Synapses are the junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

Early reading skills refers to the understanding and use of language to express ideas, thoughts, and feelings, and to communicate with others. During early speech and language development, children learn skills that are important to the development of literacy (reading and writing).

Social skills are any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways. The process of learning these skills is called socialization.

Motivational development a theory that highlights the importance of motivation as the basis of effective teaching

Self-discipline the ability to control one’s feelings and overcome one’s weaknesses; the ability to pursue what one thinks is right despite temptations to abandon it.

Personal management is about mapping a plan for your life that will involve setting short-range and long-range goals and investigating different ways to reach those goals. Education, training, and experience all help make your goals become a reality.

Aesthetic appreciation is commonly referred to as the appreciation of beauty and excellence , defined by Peterson and Seligman as the ability to find, recognize, and take pleasure in goodness in the physical and social worlds.

Cultural awareness is the foundation of communication and it involves the ability of standing back from ourselves and becoming aware of our cultural values, beliefs and perceptions.

Coherence is systematic or logical connection

Hearing reception is the intake and processing of sound

Cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum (the cerebral cortex), composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.

Cerebral cortex the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain

DOE Department of Energy

Socioeconomic relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors.

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